||The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade
The spread of Greek civilization through Europe, into Africa and the Near East, began long before the classical period, long after Troy, Mycenae and Knossos had fallen. This study provides the archaeologist's point of view of this important period of European history, describing how, out of the Dark Ages of reduced population and comparative penury, the Greeks set their sails north, south, east and west to plant trading posts and colonies, to reap whatever harvest of materials and expertise the barbarian could offer, and to disseminate the benefits of their own rapidly developing and brilliant civilization. The canvas is broad: Greek mercenaries leaving graffiti on the statues of Abel Simbel in southern Egypt; Greek traders braving the Atlantic breakers or introducing wine to Burgundy. This work seeks to demonstrate the value of archaeology to the historical record, and to indicate how much the arts and culture of Classical Greece already owed to foreign influences. For this fourth edition, an additional chapter has been added, summarizing finds and exploring the attitudes that have affected the study of the subject.